Examples¶

Because the best way to learn a language is copy-paste.

Fibonacci¶

Prints Fibonacci numbers less than ten thousand:

fib
b = 1
comefrom fib
a
next_b = a + b
a = b
b = next_b

comefrom fib if a > 10000

Factorial¶

The classic recursion example, that looks like recursion in Cf0x10, but really isn’t:

n = 5 # calculates n!
acc = 1

factorial
comefrom

comefrom accumulate if n < 1

accumulate
comefrom factorial
acc = acc * n
comefrom factorial if n is 0
n = n - 1

acc # prints the result

Fizzbuzz¶

fizzbuzz
mod_three = 3
mod_five = 5
comefrom fizzbuzz
n
comefrom fizzbuzz if n is mod_three
comefrom fizzbuzz if n is mod_five
n = n + 1

fizz
comefrom fizzbuzz if n is mod_three
'Fizz'...
mod_three = mod_three + 3
linebreak
# would like to write "unless mod_three is mod_five"
comefrom fizz if mod_three - mod_five - 3
''

buzz
comefrom fizzbuzz if n is mod_five
'Buzz'
mod_five = mod_five + 5

comefrom fizzbuzz if n is 100

99 bottles of beer¶

Using lyrics from http://99-bottles-of-beer.net/

bottles = ' bottles '
remaining = 99
one_less_bottle = remaining
depluralize
comefrom drinking if one_less_bottle is 1
bottles = ' bottle '

drinking
comefrom if remaining is one_less_bottle
remaining bottles 'of beer on the wall, ' remaining bottles 'of beer.'
'Take one down and pass it around, '...
one_less_bottle = remaining - 1
one_less_bottle bottles 'of beer on the wall.`n'
remaining = remaining - 1

comefrom if one_less_bottle is 0
'no more bottles of beer on the wall.'
''
'No more bottles of beer on the wall, no more bottles of beer.'
'Go to the store and buy some more, 99 bottles of beer on the wall.'

Brainfuck interpreter¶

Just in case anyone doubted that Cf0x10 is Turing complete

# A Brainfuck interpreter in Comefrom0x10
#
# Uses a Unicode string as storage, so behavior is undefined if cell value goes lower than zero
# or higher than 0x10ffff.
#
# Storage is unbounded on both sides of the pointer.
#
# Invoke thus:
#
#   cf0x10 brainfuck.cf0x10 bfprogram.b
#
pointer_alpha = 1/0
pointer_numeric = 1/0
tape_behind = ''
tape_ahead = 1/0
tape_pos = 0 # only for debugging
array_behind = 1/0
array_ahead = ''
set_tape_ahead = array_ahead
array_ahead = 1/0
#
shift
comefrom if array_ahead is array_ahead
cdr = 1/0
cdr = array_ahead
shift_tail = cdr
new_cell
comefrom shift if shift_tail is ''
itoa = 0
shift_tail = itoa
car = 1/0
car = array_ahead
array_behind = car array_behind
done = shift_tail
array_ahead = shift_tail
comefrom shift if array_ahead is done

set_pointer_alpha = 1/0
set_pointer_alpha
comefrom if set_pointer_alpha
atoi = set_pointer_alpha
cdr = tape_ahead
set_tape_ahead = set_pointer_alpha cdr
set_pointer_alpha = 1/0

set_tape_ahead = 1/0
set_pointer_vals
comefrom if set_tape_ahead
tape_ahead = set_tape_ahead
car = tape_ahead
pointer_alpha = car
atoi = pointer_alpha
pointer_numeric = atoi
set_tape_ahead = 1/0

pointer_change = 1/0
change_pointer_val
comefrom if pointer_change
car = tape_ahead
cdr = tape_ahead
itoa = pointer_numeric + pointer_change
set_tape_ahead = itoa cdr
pointer_change = 1/0

file = 0 # initialize to something other than undefined so jump from file works when read fails
read_path = argv
error_reading_program
comefrom file if file + 0 is 0
'Error: cannot read Brainfuck program at "' read_path '"'
''

program_loaded
comefrom file if file is file
program_behind = ''
program_ahead = file

run
comefrom program_loaded
opcode = 1/0
opcode_numeric = 1/0
in_buffer = '' # cf0x10 stdin is line-buffered
jumping = 0
moving = 1
comefrom run

comefrom execute if opcode_numeric is 0
''
execute
comefrom run if moving
# can be useful for debugging:
#program_ahead moving ':' jumping '@' tape_pos ':' pointer_numeric
car = program_ahead
atoi = car
opcode_numeric = atoi
opcode = car
opcode = 1/0

#

program_forward
comefrom execute if moving > 0
array_behind = program_behind
array_ahead = 1/0
array_ahead = program_ahead
program_behind = array_behind
program_ahead = array_ahead

forward_jump
comefrom execute if opcode is '['

jump
comefrom forward_jump if pointer_numeric is 0
jumping = jumping + 1
moving = 1
match_brace
comefrom forward_jump if jumping < 0
jumping = jumping + 1
stop_jump
comefrom match_brace if jumping is 0
moving = 1

program_backward
comefrom execute if moving < 0
array_behind = program_ahead
array_ahead = 1/0
array_ahead = program_behind
program_behind = array_ahead
program_ahead = array_behind

backward_jump
comefrom execute if opcode is ']'

jump
comefrom backward_jump if pointer_numeric > 0
jumping = jumping - 1
moving = -1
match_brace
comefrom backward_jump if jumping > 0
jumping = jumping - 1
stop_jump
comefrom match_brace if jumping is 0
moving = 1

op
comefrom execute if opcode

moving = 1
do_op = opcode
comefrom op if jumping
#
forward
comefrom op if do_op is '>'
tape_pos = tape_pos + 1
array_ahead = 1/0
array_behind = tape_behind
array_ahead = tape_ahead
tape_behind = array_behind
set_tape_ahead = array_ahead
backward
comefrom op if do_op is '<'
tape_pos = tape_pos - 1
array_ahead = 1/0
array_behind = tape_ahead
array_ahead = tape_behind
tape_behind = array_ahead
set_tape_ahead = array_behind

increment
comefrom op if do_op is '+'
pointer_change = 1
decrement
comefrom op if do_op is '-'
pointer_change = -1

print
comefrom op if do_op is '.'
pointer_alpha...
read
comefrom op if do_op is ','
#
cdr = 1/0
cdr = in_buffer
car = in_buffer
set_pointer_alpha = car
cdr = in_buffer
in_buffer = cdr
comefrom stdin if stdin + 0 is 0
#
block_for_input
comefrom read if cdr is ''
stdin = ''
in_buffer = stdin
cdr = in_buffer
comefrom stdin if stdin + 0 is 0